By Maribel Fierro
Абд ар-Рахман III — эмир с 912 года, халиф с 929 года из династии кордовских Омейядов. Восстановил полураспавшийся при его предшественниках Кордовский эмират. В 931 году взял Сеуту, в 932 году — Толедо. С 955 года заставил королей Леона и Наварры платить дань. Отвоевал у Фатимидов часть Магриба (Северная Африка). Имел баскские корни (басками были его мать и мать отца).Абдаррахман заботился о развитии культуры и об усилении политической мощи, покровительствуя развитию сельского хозяйства, ремесла, торговли, литературы и просвещения. Упорядочил финансы, поощрял строительство. При нем были созданы крупные памятники искусства в столице и в других городах. Кордова стала одним из самых прекрасных городов мира; в этом городе было около полумиллиона жителей. Правление Абдаррахмана III — апогей расцвета аль-Андалуса и кордовских Омейядов.
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But the Umayyad was eventually defeated by the Christians and his army dispersed. Ibn al-Qitt was a peculiar rebel and Umayyad pretender. He is said to have been moved to action by a man called Abu ‘Ali al-Sarraj, described as an ascetic dressed in white and riding a donkey, who preached jihad in the frontier regions of al-Andalus and who had tried to establish an alliance between Ibn Hafsun and the Banu Qasi in the year 898. The possibility exists that he might have been an Isma‘ili, one of those Shi‘i agents who were preaching the Isma‘ili cause all over the Islamic world at the time and whose presence is attested in al-Andalus during the ninth century.
048 14/12/2004 1:17 PM Page 46 46 ‘ABD AL-RAHMAN III asked for peace and was given safeguard; he maintained obedience to the emir until his death in 918. By 917, the armies of the emir were venturing farther from Cordoba, with campaigns in the eastern Mediterranean districts (Tudmir and Valencia) and in the Gharb (western Andalucía, near Portugal), where Niebla was conquered. Ibn Hafsun died in the year 918. Although he had kept his obedience to the Umayyad emir, official chronicles refer to him in extremely derogatory terms (apostate, leader of the infidels, head of the hypocrites, refuge of dissidents and heretics), and single him out among the other rebels, indicating how dangerous he was considered to be.
Very few survived. The story of how he managed to escape ‘Abbasid persecution would make an exciting script for a Hollywood movie. Together with his loyal client, the manumitted slave Badr, he fled from Syria to North Africa. He was located by ‘Abbasid agents in one of his refuges among Umayyad Berber clients and had to flee again. His mother was a Berber woman, and ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu‘awiya sought refuge among her tribe, the Nafza, but fearing for his life he had to move again, coming closer to the Iberian peninsula.