By Chin-hue Lee, Haizhou Li, Lin-shan Lee, Ren-hua Wang, Qiang Huo
After a long time of analysis job, chinese language spoken language processing (CSLP) has complex significantly either in sensible know-how and theoretical discovery. during this e-book, the editors offer either an creation to the sector in addition to designated examine issues of their suggestions in a number of components of CSLP. The contributions characterize pioneering efforts starting from CSLP rules to applied sciences and purposes, with every one bankruptcy encapsulating a unmarried challenge and its options.
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In addition to major speech coding and recognition applications, LPC is often used as a standard formant extraction and tracking method. It has limitations in that the vocal-tract filter transfer function, in addition to having formant poles (which are of primary interest for speech analysis), generally also contains zeros due to sources located above the glottis and to nasal and subglottal coupling. Furthermore, the model for the voice source as a simple sequence of excitation impulses is inaccurate, with the source actually often containing local spectral peaks and valleys.
The situation is especially serious for speech with high pitch frequencies, where the automatic formant-estimation method tends to pick harmonic frequencies rather than formant frequencies. Jumps from a correctly-estimated formant in one time frame to a higher or a lower value in the next frame constitute one common type of tracking error. The automatic tracking of formants is not trivial. The factors rendering the formant identification process complex include the following. The ranges for formant center-frequencies are large, with significant overlaps both within and across speakers.
It is wrong to label a multiple of F0 as a formant center frequency, except for the few cases where the formant aligns exactly with a multiple of F0 (such alignment is common in songs, but much less so in speech). 9. Conclusion In this chapter we have provided an overview of speech analysis from the perspectives of both speech production and perception, emphasizing their relationship. The chapter starts with a general introduction to the phonological and phonetic properties of spoken Mandarin Chinese.